Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2019, Page: 79-83
Prioritisation of Crude Oil Contaminated Sites to Inform Risk Decision Making Using Soil Quality Index
Douglas Reward Kokah, School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK; National Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria
Reuben Nwomandah Okparanma, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Samuel l Tari Raphae, Department of Chemical Engineering, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria
Received: Jul. 30, 2019;       Accepted: Aug. 19, 2019;       Published: Sep. 17, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.eas.20190404.12      View  181      Downloads  20
Crude oil contaminated sites delineation by soil quality index (SQI) is presented. This study used SQI proposed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) to delineate three genuinely petroleum-contaminated sites in the Niger Delta, Nigeria to prioritise sites to inform risk decision making and/or remediation. In assessing the potential impact on human health risks at the contaminated sites, soil screening levels (SL) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) reference concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) fractions with higher exposure potential (nC10-nC16, nC16-nC35, nC35-nC40), and risk indicator compound (benzo[a]pyrene) were used in calculating the SQI scores. The sites were assessed by scoring them on a scale spanning from 0 to 100, where 0 indicates a very high level of human health risks and 100 indicates no action is required. The following results were obtained: (a) Site 1, SQI=36.9. This indicates high priority for remediation; (b) Site 2, SQI=49.1, which implies there is high priority for remediation and (c) Site 3 (SQI=45), which means site 3 requires high priority for remedial action. Thus, SQI method can be used to prioritse crude oil contaminated sites to enhance risk classification and decision-making and provide further insight to the contaminated land sector.
Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Soil Quality Index, Human Health, Risk Prioritization, Remediation
To cite this article
Douglas Reward Kokah, Reuben Nwomandah Okparanma, Samuel l Tari Raphae, Prioritisation of Crude Oil Contaminated Sites to Inform Risk Decision Making Using Soil Quality Index, Engineering and Applied Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2019, pp. 79-83. doi: 10.11648/j.eas.20190404.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) (2002). Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland. UNEP, Switzerland.
Nganje, T. N., Hursthouse, A. S., Edet, A., Stirling, D., and Adamu, C. I. (2015). Hydrochemistry of surface and groundwater in the shale bedrock, Cross River Basin and Niger Delta region, Nigeria. Appl. Water Sci. 7, 961-985.
Davies, O., and Abolude, D. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) of surface water from Oburun Lake, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Appl. Sci. Res. 13, 20-24.
Luiselli, L., Amori, G., Akani, G. C., and Eniang, E. A. (2015). Ecological diversity, community structure and conservation of Niger Delta mammals. Biodivers. Conserv. 24: 2809-2830.
Zabbey, N., and Uyi, H. (2014). Community responsesof intertidal soft-bottom macrozoobenthos to oil pollution in a tropical mangrove ecosystem, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 82: 167-174.
Brewer, R., Nagashima, J., Kelly, M., Heskett, M., and Rigby, M. (2013). Risk-based evaluation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in vapour intrusion studies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 10 (6), 2441-2467.
Rebelo, A., Ferra, I., Goncalves, I., and Marques, A. M. (2014). Risk assessment model for water resources: Releases of dangerous and hazardous substances. J. Environ. Manage., 140, 51-59.
Park, I. S., and Park, J. W. (2010). A novel total petroleum hydrocarbon strategy for human health risk assessment for petroleum-contaminated site management. J. Hazardous Mater, 179 (1-3), 1128-1135.
ISO (2012). Soil Quality-Assessment of impact from soil contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons. ISO 11504:2012. International Organization for Standardisation, Geneva, Switzerland.
Swartjes, F. A., Rutgers, M., Lijzen, J. P. A., Janssen, P. J. C. M., Otte, P. F., Wintersen, A., Brand, E., and Posthuma, L. (2012). State of the art of contaminated site management in the Netherlands: Policy framework and risk assessment tools. Sci. Total Environ. 427-428, 1-10.
VROM (Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment), (2012). Site Remediation Circular 2009. Staatscourant 3 April 2012, Nr 6563. Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, The Hague.
DPR (Department of Petroleum Resources) (2002). Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN). Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, Abuja, Nigeria, P. 314.
Presidency Ministry (Spain) (2005). Royal Decree 9/2005 of 14 January Which Establishes a List of Potentially Soil Contaminating Activities and Criteria and Standards for Declaring that Site Are Contaminated. Official State Bulletin 15/2005. Presidency Ministry, Madrid, Spain (in Spanish) pp. 1833-1843.
Italian Ministry of Environment (2006). Legislative Decree 3rd April 2006, no. 152. Ambient Normative published in the Official Gazette no 88, 14th April 2006-suppl. Ord. no. 96. Italian Ministry of Environment, Rome, Italy (in Italian).
Finnish Ministry of the Environment (2007). Government Decree on the assessment of soil contamination and Remediation Needs, 214/2007. Finnish Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki, Finland.
CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) (2007). CCME soil quality index 1.10: technical report. In: Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines for the protection of the Environment and Human Health. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg.
Vasu, D., Singh, S. K., Ray, S. K., Duraisami, V. P., Tiwary, P., Chandra, P., Nimkar, A. M., and Anantwar, S. G. (2016). Soil quality index as a tool to evaluate crop productivity in semi-arid Deccan plateau, India. Geoderma 282, 70-79.
Sione, S. M. J., Wilson, M. G., Lado, M., and Gonzalez, A. P. (2017). Evaluation of soil degradation produced by rice crop system in vertisol, using soil quality index. CATENA 150, 79-86.
Amacher, M. C., O’Neill, K. P., and Perry, C. H. (2007). Soil Vital Signs: A New Soil Quality Index (SQI) for Assessing Forest Soil Health. United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service Research Paper RMRS-RP-65WWW.
SPDC (Shell Petroleum Development Company) of Nigeria (2005). Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the Assa North-Ohaji South Gas Development Project (The Facilities) at Ohaji/Egbema LGA, Imo State.
Risdon, G. C., Pollard, S. J. T., Brassington, K. J., McEwan, J. N., Paton, G. I., Semple, K. T., and Coulon, F. (2008). Development of an analytical procedure for weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soils within a UK risk-based framework. Anal. Chem. 80, 7090–7096.
Douglas, R. K., Nawar, S., Alamar, M. C., Mouazen, A. M., Coulon, F., 2018. Rapid prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons concentration in contaminated soil using vis-NIR spectroscopy and regression techniques. Sci. Total Environ. 616-617, 147–155.
Okparanma, R. N., Azuazu, I., and Ayotamuno, J. M. (2017). Assessment of the effectiveness of onsite exsitu remediation by enhanced natural attenuation in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria. J. Environ. Manage, 204, 291-299.
Browse journals by subject