Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2019, Page: 135-143
Visible-near Infrared (VIS-NIR) Spectroscopy as a Rapid Measurement Tool to Assess the Effect of Tillage on Oil Contaminated Sites
Douglas Reward Kokah, School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK; National Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria
Fou Ayebatin, Center for Occupational Health and Safety, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Egai Ayibawari Obiene, Department of Geology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Received: Sep. 22, 2019;       Accepted: Sep. 26, 2019;       Published: Nov. 7, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.eas.20190406.11      View  20      Downloads  13
This study assessed the potential of using visible-near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to determine the effect of tillage (ploughing) on oil-contaminated sites. Crude oil contaminated samples were collected from the Ikarama, Bayelsa State, Niger Delta, Nigeria. 62 and 20 samples were collected from untilled and tilled (ploughed) sites, respectively. All samples were analysed in the laboratory with an Analytical Spectral Device spectrometer with a spectral range of 350 to 2500 nm. Principal component analysis was performed on the soil spectral data using chemometric. Sequential ultrasonic solvent extraction was also carried out followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis to validate the visible-near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy sensitivity and ability to detect change due to hydrocarbons profile changes. 27% and 15% concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were present in the untilled and tilled sites, respectively. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis also showed that PAHs and allkanes concentrations in the untilled site ranged from 0.05 to 48.493 mg/kg and 0.07 to 528.147mg/kg, respectively. For the tilled (ploughed) site, the concentrations for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes quantified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.04 to 0.742 mg/kg and 0.06 to 159.280mg/kg, respectively. In addition, non-metric Multidimensional scaling was carried out using Primer version 6 to investigate the statistical significance of the hydrocarbon profiles and concentrations of the samples. To minimise the extent of overlap of the samples, the 82 samples collected were reduced to 49 samples (43 untilled and 6 tilled). Results show that visible-near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy may be a valuable tool for grouping hydrocarbon contaminated soils into hydrocarbon content and concentrations.
Visible-near Infrared Spectroscopy, Hydrocarbons-contaminated Soils, Tillage, Principal Component Analysis, Niger Delta
To cite this article
Douglas Reward Kokah, Fou Ayebatin, Egai Ayibawari Obiene, Visible-near Infrared (VIS-NIR) Spectroscopy as a Rapid Measurement Tool to Assess the Effect of Tillage on Oil Contaminated Sites, Engineering and Applied Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2019, pp. 135-143. doi: 10.11648/j.eas.20190406.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Liu, Y. L., Wen, C., Liu, X. J., 2013. China's food security soiled by contamination. Science 339, 1382-1383.
Luo, X.-S., Yu, S., Zhu, Y.-G., Li, X.-D., 2012. Trace metal contamination in urban soils of China. Sci. Total Environ. 421-422, 17-30.
Cai, Q.-Y., Mo, C.-H., Wu, Q.-T., Katsoyiannis, A., Zeng, Q.-Y., 2008. The status of soil contamination by semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) in China: a review. Sci. Total Environ. 389, 209-224.
Coulon, F., Whelan, M. J., Paton, G. I., Semple, K. T., Villa, R., Pollard S. J. T., 2010. Multimedia fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil: oil matrix of constructed biopiles. Chemosphere 81 1454–62. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.08.057.
Cozzolino, D., 2015. Near infrared spectroscopy as a tool to monitor contaminants in soil, sediments and water–state of the art, advantages and pitfalls. Trends Environ. Anal. Chem. doi: 10.1016/j.teac.2015.10.001.
Okparanma, R. N., Coulon, F and Mouazen, A. M., 2014. Analysis of petroleum-contaminated soils by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and sequential ultrasonic solvent extraction-gas chromatography. Environmental Pollution 184, 298-305.
Okparanma, R. N., Coulon, F., Mayr, T and Mouazen, A. M., 2014. Mapping polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and total toxicity equivalent soil concentrations by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. Environmental Pollution 192, 162-170.
Okparanma, R. N., Mouazen, A. M., 2013. Combined Effects of Oil Concentration, Clay and Moisture Contents on Diffuse Reflectance Spectra of Diesel-Contaminated Soils. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 224, 1539-8. doi: 10.1007/s11270-013-1539-8
Bray, J. G. P., Rossel, R. V., McBratney, A. B., 2009. Diagnostic screening of urban soil contaminants using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Soil Res. 47, 433–442.
Chakraborty, S., Weindorf, D. C., Morgan, C. L. S., Ge, Y., Galbraith, J. M., Li, B., 2010. Rapid identification of oil-contaminated soils using visible near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Journal of Environmental Quality 39, 1378–1387.
Forrester, S., Janik, L., & McLaughlin, M., 2010. An infrared spectroscopic test for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination in soils. In Proceedings of the 19th world congress of soil science, soil solutions for a changing world (pp. 13–16), August 1–6. Brisbane, Australia.
Schwartz, G., Ben-Dor, E., Eshel, G., 2012. Quantitative analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soils: comparison between reflectance spectroscopy and solvent extraction by 3 certified laboratories. Applied and Environmental Soil Science 1–11.
Mouazen, A. M., De Baerdemaeker, J., Ramon, H., 2005. Towards development of on-line soil moisture content sensor using fibre-type NIR Spectrophotometer. Soil Tillage Res. 80, 171-183.
Risdon, G. C., Pollard, S. J. T., Brassington, K. J., McEwan, J. N., Paton, G. I., Semple, K. T., and Coulon, F., 2008. Development of an analytical procedure for weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soils within a UK risk-based framework. Anal. Chem. 80, 7090–7096.
Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR), 2002. Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN).
Hussein, I., A and Mona, S. M. M., 2016. A review on ploycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum 25, 107-123.
Workman Jr., J., Weyer, L., 2008. Practical Guide to Interpretive Near-infrared Spectroscopy. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Browse journals by subject